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Timeline of Armenian history

History and figures historic
Published by ArthurPirlian

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This is a timeline of Armenian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Armenia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Armenia. See also the list of Armenian kings.

24th century BC

Year Date Event
2400 BC   The Book of Genesis identifies the land of Ararat as the resting place of Noah's Ark after the "great deluge" described there. The Indo-Europeans were people who presumably spread from the Caucasus, settling on lands along the way. Armenian is one of the Indo-European language branches.

23rd century BC

Year Date Event
2300 BC   Hayk creates the Armenian nation in the Ararat region. (Akkadians mention Armani in 2300 BC)

20th century BC

Year Date Event
2000 BC   Trialeti culture

9th century BC

Year Date Event
883 BC   Foundation of the Kingdom of Urartu with Aramé.
834 BC   Reign of Sarduri I who constructs Tushpa (Van). (to 828 BC)
810 BC   Reign of Menuas who conquers the Araratian fields. (to 785 BC)

8th century BC

Year Date Event
785 BC   Reign of Argishtis I who creates the first Armenian Empire. (to 763 BC)
782 BC   Construction of the fortress of Erebuni (modern Yerevan).

6th century BC

Year Date Event
585 BC   Conquest of Urartu by the Medes.
512 BC   Armenia is annexed to Persia by Darius I. Urartu is officially called Armenia for the first time in the Behistun inscription.

5th century BC

Year Date Event
401 BC   The Armenian Orontid Kingdom is founded by King Yervand I within the Achaemenid Empire.

4th century BC

Year Date Event
331 BC   Alexander the Great attacks Persia and defeats Darius III, but never conquers Armenia. As a result, Armenia regains its independence from Persia.


2nd century BC

Year Date Event
190 BC   Artaxias I reclaims Armenian sovereignty from the Seleucids by establishing the Artaxiad Dynasty with Artaxata as the capital.

1st century BC

Year Date Event
95 BC   Accession of power by Tigranes the Great.
93 BC   Invasion of Cappadocia
88 BC   Conquest of Atropatene, Gordyene, and Osrhoene
83 BC   Conquest of Syria, Phoenicia, and Cilicia
69 BC   Tigranes' army is defeated at the Battle of Tigranocerta against Lucullus' Roman army.
68 BC   Lucullus is beaten off from Artaxata.
67 BC   Lucullus is recalled to Rome.
66 BC   Pompey invades Armenia, but returns to Roman land after being offered a generous sum of money by Tigranes.
55 BC   Death of Tigranes the Great. Artavasdes II continues to rule Armenia.
  Reign of Artavasdes. (to 34 BC)

1st century

Year Date Event
1   End of the Artaxiad Dynasty in Armenia. Arsacid dynasty of Parthia (Iran) incorporates Armenia.
53   Tiridates I reaffirms Armenian independence by founding the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia
58   Roman general Corbulo invades Armenia with the assistance of the Iberians and Commagenians.
66   Tiridates is crowned in Rome by Nero, after he and Corbulo came to an agreement.
72   War against the Alans

3rd century

Year Date Event
228   Tiridates II repels Sassanid invasion.
287   Beginning of the reign of Tiridates III.

4th century

Year Date Event
301   Armenia becomes the first official Christian state in the world, King Tiridates III proclaims Christianity as the official state religion of Armenia. Zoroastrianism starts to decline gradually.
330   End of Tiridates III's reign.
387   Division of Armenia into Western and Eastern parts per the Peace of Acisilene between the Sassanid Persians and Byzantines.
392   Armenia regains its might by the coronation of King Vramshapuh in 392.

5th century

Year Date Event
406   Mesrop Mashtots invents the Armenian alphabet.
428   End of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia. Marzpanate Armenia era as part of the Sassanid empire begins.
451   The Battle of Avarayr, led by Vartan Mamikonian, secures the Christian religion in Armenia.

7th century

Year Date Event
639   The first Arab invasion under the leadership of Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah devastates the region of Taron.
642   Arabs storm the city of Dvin killing 12,000 its inhabitants and taking 35,000 into slavery.
645   Theodorus Rshtuni and other Armenian nakharars accepted Muslim rule over Armenia.
650   Armenia becomes the main battleground of the Khazar–Arab Wars & Byzantine–Arab Wars which leaves the lands depopulated. (to 750)

9th century

Year Date Event
861   Ashot I Bagratuni is recognized as prince of princes by the Baghdad court, followed by a war against local Muslim emirs. (to 862)
885   Ashot wins and is thus recognized King of the Armenians by Baghdad in 885.
886   Formal recognition of Armenian sovereignty by Constantinople.
891   King Ashot I dies and is succeeded by his son Smbat I, in 892.

10th century

Year Date Event
961   King Ashot III (953-977) transfers the capital from Kars to Ani, which came to be considered the "City of a 1001 Churches" which rivaled other metropolises like Baghdad and Constantinople.

11th century

Year Date Event
1016   Seljuk Turks first appear in the region.
1045   Armenia falls to Byzantine troops, and an exodus from the Armenian lands begins.
1064   Byzantine Ani, once the capital of Bagratid Armenia, is conquered and destroyed by the Seljuk Turks.
1071   After the Battle of Manzikert, Seljuk dominance is established over Anatolia and a large number of Turkish tribes migrate to the region.
1072   The Seljuks sell Ani to the Shaddadid, a Kurdish tribe ruling a territory coinciding with modern-day Armenia.
1078   Establishment of the Armenian Principality of Cilicia, led by the Rubenid Dynasty.
1095   The First Crusade is launched by Pope Urban I.

12th century

Year Date Event
1187   Debut of Leon II's reign as prince.
1194   After the decline of the Seljuk dominance in the region, Eastern Anatolia is ruled by a slew of Turkish emirates and tribes, such as the Ahlatshahs, Mengujekids, Saltukids and the Artuqids. (to 1241)
1198   Leon II "the Magnificent" managed to secure his crown, becoming the first King of Armenian Cilicia.

13th century

Year Date Event
1219   Death of Leon II.
1241   Mongol Invasion of Anatolia, much of the sedentary population of Armenia is slaughtered. (to 1244)
1256   Turco-Mongol rule continues in Eastern Anatolia under the Ilkhanate rulers and their Turkish and Kurdish vassals. (to 1335)

14th century

Year Date Event
1335   The decline of Mongol power leads Armenia to be dominated once again by Anatolian Turkoman tribes such as the Chobanids. (to 1400)
1375   Fall of the Armenian kingdom of Cilicia to the Mameluks of Egypt and their Ramadanid vassals.
1400   Tamerlane's devastating invasion of Georgia, Armenia and Central Anatolia leads to the slaughter of large portions of the population of Armenia and the enslavement of over 60,000 people from Anatolia and the Caucasus.

15th century

Year Date Event
1405   After Tamerlane's death, Anatolia becomes a battleground between the rival tribal confederations of the Ak Koyunlu and the Kara Koyunlu.
1461   Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople established by then the Ottoman Emperor, Mehmed II.
1478   Armenian migration to Bruges, Belgium.

16th century

Year Date Event
1502   The fanatical Shi'ite Safavid Dynasty is established in Persia, that conquers Armenia.
1512   Printing of first Armenian books.
1514   The ferocious Ottoman Safavid wars rage in the Armenian Highlands for the first time, the Ottomans temporarily gain Western Armenia.
1519   Decree of King Sigismund I that Armenians in Poland by governed under code of laws by Mkhitar Gosh.
  The first Jelali revolts; clashes between Sunnite Turks and Kurds and Shi'ite Qizilbash cause friction in Eastern Anatolia. (to 1528)
1520   Large portions of Armenia are conquered by Selim I.
1532   The second series of Ottoman-Persian wars rage in Armenia (to 1555). Armenia is split in two between the two powers per the Peace of Amasya.
1567   Establishment of Armenian printing press in Constantinople.
1598   Continuation of the devastating Jelali revolts in Anatolia. (to 1611)

17th century

Year Date Event
1603   Shah Abbas of Persia invades Ottoman Armenia (to 1618) and reestablishes full control over Eastern Armenia and large parts of Western Armenia as part of his empire.
1605   When forced to abandon the siege of Kars, Shah Abbas orders the complete destruction of many Armenian towns and villages and deports over 300,000 Armenians to Persia, of which only half survive. To cement his control in the region he establishes the Khanate of Erevan and the Khanate of Nakhichevan as vassal states. See also: Armenians in the Persianate
1623   The final Ottoman-Safavid War rages in Armenia. (to 1639)
1648   Major earthquake in Van.

18th century

Year Date Event
1712   Sayat Nova, renowned Armenian poet troubadour. (to 1795)
1722   David Bek leads the national liberation movement in 1722, but passes away in 1728.
1747   The Persians establish the Karabakh Khanate.
1759   Arrival of Hovsep Emin in Armenia
1778   Establishment of Nor Nakhichevan

19th century

Year Date Event
1809   Khachatur Abovian, novelist poet, playwright (to 1848)
1810   Zeitountsi revolts (to 1818)
1811   Mkhitarist order of Vienna founded
1813   Treaty of Gulistan. All of Eastern Armenia remains under Persian rule, except for the Armenians in Karabakh, which had already de facto become part of the Russian Empire.
1824   Founding of Nersessian Academy in Tiflis
1826   Nickolas Balian, architect in Constantinople (to 1858)
1827   Occupation of Yerevan by Russian forces
1828   Treaty of Turkmanchay. Eastern Armenia is forcefully ceded by Persia to Russia per the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828), strengthening Russian control of Transcaucasus.
1836   The Russian government enacts the Polozhenie, a statute greatly restricting the power of the Armenian Church.[1]
1894-1896   Hamidian Massacres: An estimated 80,000–300,000 are killed.

20th century

Year Date Event
1909   Adana Massacre: An estimated 15,000–30,000 are killed.
1915   Armenian Genocide: An estimated 1,500,000 are killed. (to 1923)
1918 3 March The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk gives Kars, Ardahan and Batum regions to the Ottoman Empire.
22 May Battle of Sardarapat
28 May The Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians declares the Democratic Republic of Armenia
4 June Treaty of Batum
30 October Armistice of Mudros, the Ottoman Empire agreeing to leave the Transcaucasus. The Democratic Republic of Armenia assumes control of Western Armenia, now that the Ottomans are forced to leave.

Soviet rule

Year Date Event
1965 24 April 1965 Yerevan demonstrations

Independence (1991-)

Year Date Event
1991 21 September Armenian independence referendum
17 October First-ever Armenian presidential election, Levon Ter-Petrosyan elected President with overwhelming popular support
1992 9 May Capture of Shusha
1995 5 July Armenian constitutional referendum
1999 27 October Armenian parliament shooting


21st century

Year Date Event
2004 12 April Robert Kocharyan's government dispersed massive, peaceful protest using excessive force.[2]
2008 19 February Armenian presidential election, 2008
2012 6 May Armenian parliamentary election, 2012
2013 18 February Armenian presidential election, 2013
2015 12 January 2015 Gyumri massacre


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