Ref ID: 1N2017/2745 | Posted On: 21-06-2017 | Updated on: 21-06-2017
Timeline of Armenian history
Published by ArthurPirlian
This is a timeline of Armenian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Armenia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Armenia. See also the list of Armenian kings.
24th century BC
|The Book of Genesis identifies the land of Ararat as the resting place of Noah's Ark after the "great deluge" described there. The Indo-Europeans were people who presumably spread from the Caucasus, settling on lands along the way. Armenian is one of the Indo-European language branches.
23rd century BC
|Hayk creates the Armenian nation in the Ararat region. (Akkadians mention Armani in 2300 BC)
20th century BC
9th century BC
|Foundation of the Kingdom of Urartu with Aramé.
|Reign of Sarduri I who constructs Tushpa (Van). (to 828 BC)
|Reign of Menuas who conquers the Araratian fields. (to 785 BC)
8th century BC
|Reign of Argishtis I who creates the first Armenian Empire. (to 763 BC)
|Construction of the fortress of Erebuni (modern Yerevan).
6th century BC
|Conquest of Urartu by the Medes.
|Armenia is annexed to Persia by Darius I. Urartu is officially called Armenia for the first time in the Behistun inscription.
5th century BC
|The Armenian Orontid Kingdom is founded by King Yervand I within the Achaemenid Empire.
4th century BC
|Alexander the Great attacks Persia and defeats Darius III, but never conquers Armenia. As a result, Armenia regains its independence from Persia.
2nd century BC
|Artaxias I reclaims Armenian sovereignty from the Seleucids by establishing the Artaxiad Dynasty with Artaxata as the capital.
1st century BC
|Accession of power by Tigranes the Great.
|Invasion of Cappadocia
|Conquest of Atropatene, Gordyene, and Osrhoene
|Conquest of Syria, Phoenicia, and Cilicia
|Tigranes' army is defeated at the Battle of Tigranocerta against Lucullus' Roman army.
|Lucullus is beaten off from Artaxata.
|Lucullus is recalled to Rome.
|Pompey invades Armenia, but returns to Roman land after being offered a generous sum of money by Tigranes.
|Death of Tigranes the Great. Artavasdes II continues to rule Armenia.
|Reign of Artavasdes. (to 34 BC)
|End of the Artaxiad Dynasty in Armenia. Arsacid dynasty of Parthia (Iran) incorporates Armenia.
|Tiridates I reaffirms Armenian independence by founding the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia
|Roman general Corbulo invades Armenia with the assistance of the Iberians and Commagenians.
|Tiridates is crowned in Rome by Nero, after he and Corbulo came to an agreement.
|War against the Alans
|Tiridates II repels Sassanid invasion.
|Beginning of the reign of Tiridates III.
|Armenia becomes the first official Christian state in the world, King Tiridates III proclaims Christianity as the official state religion of Armenia. Zoroastrianism starts to decline gradually.
|End of Tiridates III's reign.
|Division of Armenia into Western and Eastern parts per the Peace of Acisilene between the Sassanid Persians and Byzantines.
|Armenia regains its might by the coronation of King Vramshapuh in 392.
|Mesrop Mashtots invents the Armenian alphabet.
|End of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia. Marzpanate Armenia era as part of the Sassanid empire begins.
|The Battle of Avarayr, led by Vartan Mamikonian, secures the Christian religion in Armenia.
|The first Arab invasion under the leadership of Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah devastates the region of Taron.
|Arabs storm the city of Dvin killing 12,000 its inhabitants and taking 35,000 into slavery.
|Theodorus Rshtuni and other Armenian nakharars accepted Muslim rule over Armenia.
|Armenia becomes the main battleground of the Khazar–Arab Wars & Byzantine–Arab Wars which leaves the lands depopulated. (to 750)
|Ashot I Bagratuni is recognized as prince of princes by the Baghdad court, followed by a war against local Muslim emirs. (to 862)
|Ashot wins and is thus recognized King of the Armenians by Baghdad in 885.
|Formal recognition of Armenian sovereignty by Constantinople.
|King Ashot I dies and is succeeded by his son Smbat I, in 892.
|King Ashot III (953-977) transfers the capital from Kars to Ani, which came to be considered the "City of a 1001 Churches" which rivaled other metropolises like Baghdad and Constantinople.
|Seljuk Turks first appear in the region.
|Armenia falls to Byzantine troops, and an exodus from the Armenian lands begins.
|Byzantine Ani, once the capital of Bagratid Armenia, is conquered and destroyed by the Seljuk Turks.
|After the Battle of Manzikert, Seljuk dominance is established over Anatolia and a large number of Turkish tribes migrate to the region.
|The Seljuks sell Ani to the Shaddadid, a Kurdish tribe ruling a territory coinciding with modern-day Armenia.
|Establishment of the Armenian Principality of Cilicia, led by the Rubenid Dynasty.
|The First Crusade is launched by Pope Urban I.
|Debut of Leon II's reign as prince.
|After the decline of the Seljuk dominance in the region, Eastern Anatolia is ruled by a slew of Turkish emirates and tribes, such as the Ahlatshahs, Mengujekids, Saltukids and the Artuqids. (to 1241)
|Leon II "the Magnificent" managed to secure his crown, becoming the first King of Armenian Cilicia.
|Death of Leon II.
|Mongol Invasion of Anatolia, much of the sedentary population of Armenia is slaughtered. (to 1244)
|Turco-Mongol rule continues in Eastern Anatolia under the Ilkhanate rulers and their Turkish and Kurdish vassals. (to 1335)
|The decline of Mongol power leads Armenia to be dominated once again by Anatolian Turkoman tribes such as the Chobanids. (to 1400)
|Fall of the Armenian kingdom of Cilicia to the Mameluks of Egypt and their Ramadanid vassals.
|Tamerlane's devastating invasion of Georgia, Armenia and Central Anatolia leads to the slaughter of large portions of the population of Armenia and the enslavement of over 60,000 people from Anatolia and the Caucasus.
|After Tamerlane's death, Anatolia becomes a battleground between the rival tribal confederations of the Ak Koyunlu and the Kara Koyunlu.
|Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople established by then the Ottoman Emperor, Mehmed II.
|Armenian migration to Bruges, Belgium.
|The fanatical Shi'ite Safavid Dynasty is established in Persia, that conquers Armenia.
|Printing of first Armenian books.
|The ferocious Ottoman Safavid wars rage in the Armenian Highlands for the first time, the Ottomans temporarily gain Western Armenia.
|Decree of King Sigismund I that Armenians in Poland by governed under code of laws by Mkhitar Gosh.
|The first Jelali revolts; clashes between Sunnite Turks and Kurds and Shi'ite Qizilbash cause friction in Eastern Anatolia. (to 1528)
|Large portions of Armenia are conquered by Selim I.
|The second series of Ottoman-Persian wars rage in Armenia (to 1555). Armenia is split in two between the two powers per the Peace of Amasya.
|Establishment of Armenian printing press in Constantinople.
|Continuation of the devastating Jelali revolts in Anatolia. (to 1611)
|Shah Abbas of Persia invades Ottoman Armenia (to 1618) and reestablishes full control over Eastern Armenia and large parts of Western Armenia as part of his empire.
|When forced to abandon the siege of Kars, Shah Abbas orders the complete destruction of many Armenian towns and villages and deports over 300,000 Armenians to Persia, of which only half survive. To cement his control in the region he establishes the Khanate of Erevan and the Khanate of Nakhichevan as vassal states. See also: Armenians in the Persianate
|The final Ottoman-Safavid War rages in Armenia. (to 1639)
|Major earthquake in Van.
|Sayat Nova, renowned Armenian poet troubadour. (to 1795)
|David Bek leads the national liberation movement in 1722, but passes away in 1728.
|The Persians establish the Karabakh Khanate.
|Arrival of Hovsep Emin in Armenia
|Establishment of Nor Nakhichevan
|Khachatur Abovian, novelist poet, playwright (to 1848)
|Zeitountsi revolts (to 1818)
|Mkhitarist order of Vienna founded
|Treaty of Gulistan. All of Eastern Armenia remains under Persian rule, except for the Armenians in Karabakh, which had already de facto become part of the Russian Empire.
|Founding of Nersessian Academy in Tiflis
|Nickolas Balian, architect in Constantinople (to 1858)
|Occupation of Yerevan by Russian forces
|Treaty of Turkmanchay. Eastern Armenia is forcefully ceded by Persia to Russia per the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828), strengthening Russian control of Transcaucasus.
|The Russian government enacts the Polozhenie, a statute greatly restricting the power of the Armenian Church.
|Hamidian Massacres: An estimated 80,000–300,000 are killed.
|Adana Massacre: An estimated 15,000–30,000 are killed.
|Armenian Genocide: An estimated 1,500,000 are killed. (to 1923)
|The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk gives Kars, Ardahan and Batum regions to the Ottoman Empire.
|Battle of Sardarapat
|The Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians declares the Democratic Republic of Armenia
|Treaty of Batum
|Armistice of Mudros, the Ottoman Empire agreeing to leave the Transcaucasus. The Democratic Republic of Armenia assumes control of Western Armenia, now that the Ottomans are forced to leave.
|1965 Yerevan demonstrations
|Armenian independence referendum
|First-ever Armenian presidential election, Levon Ter-Petrosyan elected President with overwhelming popular support
|Capture of Shusha
|Armenian constitutional referendum
|Armenian parliament shooting
|Robert Kocharyan's government dispersed massive, peaceful protest using excessive force.
|Armenian presidential election, 2008
|Armenian parliamentary election, 2012
|Armenian presidential election, 2013
|2015 Gyumri massacre